INFORMATION FROM ISOTOPE RATIOS (PDF)
I am a simple experimentalist with little or no understanding of theoretical physics, electricity, or astronomy.
Our Sun is an ordinary star. The abundance of elements at the solar surface (photosphere) is 91% H, 9% He, and all together the 81 heavier elements constitute less than 0.2%
H (Hydrogen) is the lightest of all elements.
He (Helium) is the next lightest one.
My training is in:
_A_.) Nuclear Chemistry and
_B_.) Stable Isotope Mass Spectrometry.
_B_.) Measurements on Isotope Abundances in various parts of the solar system, beginning in 1960, compelled us by 1976 to this unpopular conclusion about the birth of the solar system:
If true, then the Sun should be an iron-rich supernova remnant, not a ball of hydrogen.
Measurements on isotope abundances implanted in lunar soils by the solar wind revealed a systementic enrichment of lightweight isotopes from mass fractionation:
If this mass fractionation occurs inside the Sun, then the interior of the Sun consists mostly of Iron (Fe), Oxygen (O), Silicon (Si), Nickel (Ni) and Sulfur (S) – the same elements that are dominant in rocky planets and in ordinary meteorites.
We believe that is correct, because
a.) The above paper predicted the presence of excess Xe-136 in Jupiter in 1983 and the Galileo probe to Jupiter observed excess Xe-136 in Jupiter in 1996:
b.) The abundance pattern of elements made by slow neutron capture (the s-process) in the solar photosphere show a similar mass separation in the Sun:
Thus, the abundance of elements in the interior of the Sun looks like this:
Since Iron (Fe) is the ash of nuclear fusion or fission, the Sun could not get its energy from Fe.
_A_.) Measurements of nuclear masses for the 3,000 different types of nuclei that constitute all visible matter in the universe reveal this “Cradle of the Nuclides”:
If mass parabolas are fitted to the data points at each value of A and extrapolated to values of charge density, Z/A = 0, the value of M/A at that point shows strongly repulsive forces between neutrons.
Solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, and solar wind H & He pouring from the solar surface are explained by the nuclear reactions shown below the first “Chadle of the Nuclides” plot:
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